Thursday, May 23, 2024

Uncovering a shared kitchen microbiota throughout European houses


People are continually uncovered to various microbes, which may have optimistic and adversarial well being results. Appreciable publicity the these microorganisms happens indoors, with the very best bacterial colonization reported within the kitchen. Up to now, no research has in contrast microbial communities in households throughout international locations, which is critical to find out if a core kitchen microbiota exists.

Study: Mapping the Kitchen Microbiota in Five European Countries Reveals a Set of Core Bacteria across Countries, Kitchen Surfaces, and Cleaning Utensils. Image Credit: Africa Studio / Examine: Mapping the Kitchen Microbiota in 5 European International locations Reveals a Set of Core Micro organism throughout International locations, Kitchen Surfaces, and Cleansing Utensils. Picture Credit score: Africa Studio /

Concerning the research

A current research printed within the journal Utilized and Environmental Microbiology mapped the microbiota on kitchen surfaces and cleansing utensils to find out any associations between microbiota, family objects, and nation.

Kitchen floor and cleansing utensil samples have been collected from 74 households in Hungary, France, Portugal, Romania, and Norway. Floor samples from completely different kitchen objects have been obtained earlier than dinner preparation.

Samples from cleansing sponges and cloths have been obtained after meals preparation and subsequently subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. Alpha range was analyzed utilizing the Shannon index, noticed options, and Religion’s phylogenetic range.

Linear blended fashions have been used to check Alpha range variations throughout pattern varieties and international locations. Beta range evaluation was additionally carried out via unweighted and weighted UniFrac, Jaccard, and Bray-Curtis. Univariate and multivariate analyses examined variations between pattern counties and kinds.

Examine findings

A complete of 305 samples have been analyzed and three,487 sub-operational taxonomic models (sOTUs) have been detected from over 18.8 million sequences. A mean of 61,960 sequences have been obtained for every pattern, with 5,420 sequences isoalted for each sOTU.

The kitchen microbiota comprised members from 793 genera from 297 households. Probably the most frequent sequences have been from the Proteobacteria phylum, adopted by Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Actinobacteria phyla.

Probably the most considerable genera and households have been Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Yersiniaceae. Forty-five sOTUs have been recognized within the Acinetobacter genus, with A. johnsonii being essentially the most frequent Acinetobacter species.

Sixty-four sOTUs represented the Pseudomonas genus. Nineteen sOTUs have been recognized inside the Enterobacteriaceae household.

There have been 41, 12, 67, and 16 sOTUs inside the Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Chryseobacterium, and Kocuria genera, respectively. Sixteen samples have been optimistic for Listeria, one examined optimistic for Campylobacter, and none had Salmonella.

Notably, sOTUs associated to S. enterica and Shigella/Escherichia have been detected in samples from all 5 international locations, whereas C. jejuni was current in Romanian, French, and Portuguese samples. Most of those pathogens have been comparatively much less considerable.

Alpha range considerably differed between pattern varieties and throughout international locations. For instance, samples from Portugal had fewer noticed sOTUs than these from Norway and France, whereas samples from Norway, Hungary, and France had related ranges of Alpha range.

Related outcomes have been noticed with Religion’s phylogenetic range. Nation variations have been much less evident when analyses have been restricted to samples from cleansing utensils however remained vital when solely floor samples have been thought of.

Handles had the very best Alpha range based mostly on noticed options, whereas sponges had the bottom. Principal part evaluation (PCA) confirmed the tendency for microbiota clustering by pattern kind and nation. Though the microbiota in cleansing cloths and sponges have been related, their similarity was higher throughout international locations than between cloths and sponges.

Floor samples have been clustered by nation, thus implying that the microbiota was extra related in floor samples inside a rustic than a particular floor pattern throughout international locations. Nevertheless, some exceptions to this discovering have been noticed. For instance, the microbiota on French handles was extra just like that on Hungarian handles than in different French floor samples.

Some micro organism in sponges and cloths with considerably completely different relative abundances have been noticed between international locations as in comparison with floor samples. Sink samples had the very best micro organism with considerably completely different relative abundance between international locations.

Eight genera/households have been recognized because the core microbiota, of which included Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enhydrobacter, and Chryseobacterium. Of those, Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, and Acinetobacter have been the one taxa current in all samples, which additionally exhibited the very best imply relative abundances.

Enhydrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae have been recognized because the core sOTUs. The core microbiota diverse in relative abundance between pattern varieties and international locations. Among the many core microbiota, the relative abundances of Psychrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, and Enhydrobacter considerably differed between international locations.

There have been vital variations in Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus between pattern varieties, with the very best abundances in humid samples obtained from sinks, cloths, and sponges, in addition to handles, respectively. Likewise, Bacillus exhibited vital variations between pattern varieties, with the bottom abundance current in humid samples.


Regardless of the appreciable variations in kitchen requirements, dietary habits, and meals preparation practices, a core microbiota of the kitchen comprising eight taxa on the genus/household stage was recognized, with three core micro organism noticed on the sOTU stage.

Total, the research findings increase the data base of the kitchen microbiota. Future research ought to correlate these outcomes with meals security behaviors and their impression on human well being.

Journal reference:

  • Moen, B., Langsrud, S., Berget, I., et al. (2023). Mapping the Kitchen Microbiota in 5 European International locations Reveals a Set of Core Micro organism throughout International locations, Kitchen Surfaces, and Cleansing Utensils. Utilized Environmental Microbiology. doi:10.1128/aem.00267-23


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